Substitutions and Conversions



Farenheit to Celsius conversion chart


                              250 degrees F = 130 degrees C or Gas mark 1/2
                              275 degrees F = 140 degrees C or Gas mark 1
                              300 degrees F = 150 degrees C or Gas mark 2
                              325 degrees F = 160 degrees C or Gas mark 3
                              350 degrees F = 180 degrees C or Gas mark 4
                              375 degrees F = 190 degrees C or Gas mark 5
                              400 degrees F = 200 degrees C or Gas mark 6
                              425 degrees F = 220 degrees C or Gas mark 7
                              450 degrees F = 230 degrees C or Gas mark 8



1 egg                        = 1/2 tsp baking powder, if egg is used as a leavening agent
                                = 1/4 cup unsweetened apple sauce, if egg used to increase moisture
                                = 1/2 ripe banana (ensure recipe contains baking powder to avoid a dense bake)
                                = 1/4 cup puréed prunes / puréed strawberries (with baking powder)
                                = 1/4 cup yogurt (with baking powder )
                                = 1/4 cup blended tofu
                                = 1/4 cup  custard powder / cornstarch
                                = 1 teaspoon baking soda + 1 tablespoon white or apple cider vinegar
                                = Day old bread / breadcrumbs and/ or chickpea flour where eggs act as binders
                                = condensed milk (along with baking powder)
                                = 1/4 cup mashed potatoes (in savoury dishes where eggs are binders)

Egg wash                 = milk, oil or butter

Butter

1 cup butter = 8 ounces (1 ounce = 28.34 grams, so one cup of butter weighs 227 grams.)

1/4 cup of butter = 57 g
1/3 cup of butter = 76 g
1/2 cup of butter = 113 g

Sweetener
  • 10g sugar = 1g Canderel
  • 30 ml sugar = 1 1/2 tsp Canderel 

Canned coconut milk, substitute as follows:
  • For thick milk - use as they are direct from the can
  • For medium milk - add 1/2 cup water to 1 cup canned milk to make 1.5 cups
  • For thin milk - add 1 1/2  cup water to  1 1/2 cup of canned milk to make 3 cups
Coconut milk powder, substitute as follows:
  • For thick milk - add 3 tbsp powder to 1 cup of warm water to make 1 cup of milk
  • For medium milk -  add 3 tbsp powder to 1 1/2 cup of warm water to make 1 1 /2 cup of milk
  • For thin milk - add 3 tbsp powder to 3 cups of warm water to make 3 cups of milk
Tomato Equivalents

Fresh Tomatoes:

1 cherry tomato weights appx. 30g  and equals about 1 tablespoon.
25 to 30 cherry tomatoes = 2 cups chopped tomatoes.
1 plum tomato weighs appx. 60-90g and equals about 1/3 cup.
1 small tomato weights 90-150g and equals about 2/3 cup.
1 medium tomato weight 150-180g ounces and equals about 3/4 cup.
1 large tomato weighs 210g or more and equals about 1 1/4 cups..
500g fresh tomatoes = 3 cups pureed tomatoes.

Canned Tomatoes:

1 (400g, 16-ounce) can = 2 cups undrained tomatoes = 1 cup drained tomatoes.
1 (800g, 28-ounce) can = 3 cups undrained = 2 to 2 1/2 cups drained tomatoes.
1 (170g, 6-ounce) can tomato paste = 1/4 cup.

Apples:

a pound of whole apples will yield about 3 cups prepared apples.



1 tbsp cornstarch      = 2 tbsp flour (for thickening)

1 chocolate  square   = 3 tbsp cocoa + 1 tbsp butter

1 tsp baking powder = 1/4 tsp baking soda + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar

1 cup milk                 = 1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup water

1 cup buttermilk       =  1 tsp lemon juice or vinegar + enough milk to make up to 1 cup

1 cup cake flour       = 7/8 cup all-purpose flour

1 clove garlic minced= 1/8 tsp garlic powder

1 tsp garlic salt          = 1/8 tsp garlic powder + 7/8 tsp salt

1 cup half-and Half  = 1 tbsp melted butter + enough whole milk to make up to 1 cup

1 cup honey             = 1 1/4 cups sugar + 1/4 cup water

1 tsp lemon juice      =  1/4 tsp cider vinegar

1 tsp lemon Peel       = 1/2 tsp lemon extract

1 cup molasses          = 1 cup honey

1 small onion chopped =  1 tsp onion powder

1 tbsp mustard paste   = 1/2 tsp mustard powder + 2 tsp vinegar

1 oz semisweet chocolate = 3 tbsp semisweet chocolate chips 

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